Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER IX‎ > ‎

603. In the classes of the first or non-a-conjugation

The classes of the First or non-a-Conjugation are as follows:

I. The root-class (second class, or ad-class, of the Hindu grammarians); its present-stem is coincident with the root itself: thus, अद् ad eat; इ i go; आस् ās sit; या  go; द्विष् dviṣ hate; दुह्duh milk.

II. The reduplicating class (third or hu-class); the root is reduplicated to form the present-stem: thus, जुहु juhu from √हु hu sacrifice; ददा dadā from √दा  give; बिभृ bibhṛ from √भृ bhṛbear.

III. The nasal class (seventh or rudh-class); a nasal, extended to the syllable न na in strong forms, is inserted before the final consonant of the root: thus, रुन्ध् rundh (or रुणध् ruṇadh) from √रुध् rudh obstructyuñj जुञ्ज् (or युनज् yunaj) from √युज् yuj join.

IV. a. The nu-class (fifth or su-class); the syllable नु nu is added to the root: thus, सुनु sunu from √सु su press out; आप्नु āpnu from √आप् āp obtain.

b. A very small number (only half-a-dozen) of roots ending already in न् n, and also one very common and quite irregularly inflected root not so ending (कृ kṛ make), add उ u alone to form the present-stem. This is the eighth or tan-class of the Hindu grammarians; it may be best ranked by us as a sub-class, the u-class: thus, तनु tanu from √तन् tan stretch.

V. The -class (ninth or krī-class); the syllable ना  (or, in weak forms, नी ) is added to the root: thus, क्रीणा krīṇā (or क्रीणी krīṇī) from √क्री krī buy; स्तभ्ना stabhnā (or स्तभ्नीstabhnī) from √स्तभ् stabh establish.