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617. The imperative adds

4. Present Imperative.

The imperative adds, in second and third persons, its own endings (with अताम् atām in 3d pl. mid.) directly to the root-stem. The stem is accented and strengthened in 3d sing. act.; elsewhere, the accent is on the ending and the root remains unchanged. The first persons, so called, of the later language are from the old subjunctive, and have its strengthened stem and accent; they are repeated here from where they were given above (614 a). In the 2d sing. act., the ending is regularly (as in the two following classes) धि dhi if the root end with a consonant, and हि hi if it end with a vowel. As examples we take the roots already used for the purpose.

a. Thus, from the roots इ i and आस् ās:

active.middle.
s.d.p.s.d.p.
1अयानि
áyāni
अयाव
áyāva
अयाम
áyāma
आसै
ā́sāi
आसावहै
ā́sāvahāi
आसामहै
ā́sāmahāi
2इहि
ihí
इतम्
itám
इत
itá
आस्स्व
ā́ssva
आसाथाम्
ā́sāthām
आद्ध्वम्
ā́ddhvam
3एतु
étu
इताम्
itā́m
यन्तु
yántu
आस्ताम्
ā́stām
आसाताम्
ā́sātām
आसताम्
ā́satām

b. From the roots dviṣ and duh and lih:

1dvéṣāṇidvéṣāvadvéṣāmadvéṣāidvéṣāvahāidvéṣāmahāi
2dviḍḍhídviṣṭámdviṣṭádvikṣvádviṣā́thāmdviḍḍhvám
3dvéṣṭudviṣṭā́mdviṣántudviṣṭā́mdviṣā́tāmdviṣátām
1dóhānidóhāvadóhāmadóhāidóhāvahāidóhāmahāi
2dugdhídugdhámdugdhádhukṣváduhā́thāmdhugdhvám
3dógdhudugdhā́mduhántudugdhā́mduhā́tāmduhátām
1léhāniléhāvaléhāmaléhāiléhāvahāiléhāmahāi
2līḍhílīḍhámlīḍhálikṣválihā́thāmlīḍhvám
3léḍhulīḍhā́mlihántulīḍhā́mlihā́tāmlihátām