Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER IX‎ > ‎

619. The active participle

5. Present Participle.

a. The active participle has the ending अन्त् ánt (weak stem-form अत् at) added to the unstrengthened root. Mechanically, it may be formed from the 3d pl. by dropping the final इ i. Thus, for the verbs inflected above, the active participles are यन्त् yánt, दुहन्त् duhánt, द्विषन्त् dviṣánt, लिहन्त् lihánt. The feminine stem ends usually in अती atī́: thus, यती yatī́, दुहती duhatī́, द्विषती dviṣatī́, लिहती lihatī́: but, from roots in ā, in आन्ती ā́ntī or आती ātī́ (449 g).

b. The middle participle has the ending आन āná, added to the unstrengthened root: thus, इयान iyāná, दुहान duhāná, द्विषाण dviṣāṇá, लिहान lihāná.

c. The root ās forms the anomalous and isolated ā́sīna (in RV. also āsāná).

d. But a number of these participles in the older language have a double accent, either on the ending or on the radical syllable: thus, īçāná and ī́çāna, ohāná and óhāna, duhānáand dúhāna (also dúghāna), rihāṇá and ríhāṇa, vidāná and vídāna, suvāná and súvāna, stuvāná and stavāná and stávāna — the last having in part also a strong form of the root.