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621. Roots ending

a. Roots ending in ā may in the later language optionally take us instead of an in 3d pl. act. (the ā being lost before it); and in the older they always do so: thus, áyus from √,ápus from √ protectabhus from √bhā. The same ending is also allowed and met with in the case of a few roots ending in consonants: namely vid knowcakṣdviṣduhmṛj. RV. has atviṣus.

b. The ending tana, 2d pl. act., is found in the Veda in áyātana, ásastana, āítana, ábravītana. A strong stem is seen in the 1st pl. homa, and the 2d pl. abravīta andábravītana.

c. To save the characteristic endings in 2d and 3d sing. act., the root ad inserts a: thus, ā́das, ā́dat; the root as inserts ī: thus, ā́sīsā́sīt (see below, 636); compare also 631–4.