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636. The root as

The root अस् as be loses its vowel in weak forms (except where protected by combination with the augment). Its 2d sing. indic. is असि ási (instead of assi); its 2d sing. impv. is एधिedhí (irregularly from asdhi). The insertion of ई ī in 2d and 3d sing. impf. has been noticed already above.

a. The forms of this extremely common verb are, then, as follows:

Indicative.Optative.
s.d.p.s.d.p.
1अस्मि
ásmi
स्वस्
svás
स्मस्
smás
स्याम्
syā́m
स्याव
syā́va
स्याम
syā́ma
2असि
ási
स्थस्
sthás
स्थ
sthá
स्यास्
syā́s
स्यातम्
syā́tam
स्यात
syā́ta
3अस्ति
ásti
स्तस्
stás
सन्ति
sánti
स्यात्
syā́t
स्याताम्
syā́tām
स्युस्
syús
Imperative.Imperfect.
1असानि
ásāni
असाव
ásāva
असाम
ásāma
आसम्
ā́sam
आस्व
ā́sva
आस्म
ā́sma
2एधि
edhí
स्तम्
stám
स्त
stá
आसीस्
ā́sīs
आस्तम्
ā́stam
आस्त
ā́sta
3अस्तु
ástu
स्ताम्
stā́m
सन्तु
sántu
आसीत्
ā́sīt
आस्ताम्
ā́stām
आसन्
ā́san

Participle सन्त् sánt (fem. सती satī́).

b. Besides the forms of the present-system, there is made from this root only a perfect, ā́sa etc. (800), of wholly regular inflection.

c. The Vedic subjunctive forms are the usual ones, made upon the stem ása. They are in frequent use, and appear (asat especially) even in late texts where the subjunctive is almost lost. The resolution siā́m etc. (opt.) is common in Vedic verse. As 2d and 3d sing. impf. is a few times met with the more normal ās (for ās-s, ās-t). Sthána, 2d pl., was noted above (613).

d. Middle forms from √as are also given by the grammarians as allowed with certain prepositions (vi+ati), but they are not quotable; smahe and syāmahe (!) occur in the epics, but are merely instances of the ordinary epic confusion of voices (529 a). Confusions of primary and secondary endings — namely, sva and sma (not rare), and, on the other hand, syāvas andsyāmas — are also epic. A middle present indicative is said to be compounded (in 1st and 2d persons) with the nomen agentis in tṛ (tar) to form a periphrastic future in the middle voice (but see below, 947). The 1st sing. indic. is he; the rest is in the usual relation of middle to active forms (in 2d pers., se, dhve, sva, dhvam, with total loss of the root itself).