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637. The root smite

The root han smite, slay is treated somewhat after the manner of noun-stems in an in declension (421): in weak forms, it loses its n before an initial consonant (except m and v) of a personal ending (not in the optative), and its a before an initial vowel — and in the latter case its h, in contact with the n, is changed to gh (compare 402). Thus, for example:

Present Indicative.Imperfect.
s.d.p.s.d.p.
1hánmihanváshanmásáhanamáhanvaáhanma
2háṅsihatháshathááhanáhatamáhata
3hántihatásghnántiáhanáhatāmághnan

a. Its participle is ghnánt (fem. ghnatī́). Its 2d sing. impv. is jahí (by anomalous dissimilation, on the model of reduplicating forms).

b. Middle forms from this root are frequent in the Brāhmaṇas, and those that occur are formed in general according to the same rules: thus, hate, hanmahe, ghnate; ahata, aghnātām, aghnata (in AB., also ahata); ghnīta (but also hanīta). Forms from transfer-stems, hana and ghna, are met with from an early period.