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676. The grammarians reckon several roots

The grammarians reckon (as already noticed, 641) several roots of the most evidently reduplicate character as simple, and belonging to the root-class. Some of these (jāgṛdaridrā,vevī) are regular intensive stems, and will be described below under Intensives (1020 a, 1024 a); dīdhī shine, together with Vedic dīdī shine and pīpī swell, are sometimes also classed as intensives; but they have not the proper reduplication of such, and may perhaps be best noticed here, as reduplicated present-stems with irregularly long reduplicating vowel.

a. Of pres. indic. occurs in the older language only dīdyati, 3d pl., with the pples dī́dyat and dī́dhyat, and mid. dīdyedīdhyedīdhyāthām, with the pples dī́dyāna,dī́dhyānapī́pyāna. The subj. stems are dīdáyadīdhayapīpáya, and from them are made forms with both primary (from dīdáya) and secondary endings (and the irregularly accented dī́dayat and dīdāyat and dī́dhayan). No opt. occurs. In impv. we have dīdihí (and didīhí) and pīpihí, and pipyatampipyatāmpipyata. In impf., adīdes andpīpesádīdet and ádīdhet and apīpet (with augmentless forms), apīpema (with strong form of root), and adīdhayus and (irregular) apīpyan.

b. A few forms from all the three show transfer to an a-inflection: thus, dīdhaya and pīpaya (impv.), ápīpayat, etc.

c. Similar forms from √ bellow are amīmet and mīmayat.