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716. A few verbs belonging originally

A few verbs belonging originally to these classes have been shifted, in part or altogether, to the a-class, their proper class-sign having been stereotyped as a part of the root.

a. Thus, in RV. we find forms both from the stem inu (√i or in), and also from ínva, representing a derivative quasi-root inv (and these latter alone occur in AV.). So likewise forms from a stem ṛṇva beside those from ṛṇu (√); and from hinva beside those from hinu (√hi). The so-called roots jinv and pinv are doubtless of the same origin, although no forms from the stem pinu are met with at any period — unless pinvire (above, 699 b) be so regarded; and AV. has the participle pinvánt, f. pinvatī́. The grammarians set up a root dhinv, but only forms from dhi (stem dhinu) appear to occur in the present-system (the aorist adhinvīt is found in PB.).

b. Occasional a-forms are met with also from other roots: thus, cinvata etc., dunvasva.