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733. Second or a-Conjugation

Second or a-Conjugation.

We come now to the classes which compose the Second or a-Conjugation. These are more markedly similar in their mode of inflection than the preceding classes; their common characteristics, already stated, may be here repeated in summary. They are: 1. A final a in the present-stem; 2. a constant accent, not changing between stem and ending; 3. a briefer form of the optative mode-sign in the active, namely ī instead of  (combining in both voices alike with a to e); 4. the absence of any ending (except when tāt is used) in 2d sing. impv. act.; 5. the conversion of initial ā of the 2d and 3d du. mid. endings to e; 6. the use of the full endings anteantaantām in 3d pl. mid. forms; 7. the invariable use of an (not us) in 3d pl. impf. act.; 8. and the use of māna instead of āna as ending of the mid. pple. Moreover, 9. the stem-final a becomes ā before m and v of 1st personal endings — but not before am of 1st sing. impf.: here, as before the 3d pl. endings, the stem-final is lost, and the short a of the ending remains (or the contrary): thus, bhávanti (bháva+anti), bhávante (bháva+ante),ábhavam (ábhava+am).

a. All these characteristics belong not to the inflection of the a-present-systems alone, but also to that of the a-, reduplicated, and sa-aorists, the s-future, and the desiderative, causative, and denominative present-systems. That is to say, wherever in conjugation an a-stem is found, it is inflected in the same manner.