Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER IX‎ > ‎

745. Irregularities of the a-class

Irregularities of the a-class.

A few verbs have irregular vowel-changes in forming the present-stem: thus,

a. ūh consider has guṇa-strengthening (against 240): thus, óhate.

b. kṛp (or kraplament, on the contrary, remains unchanged: thus, ḱṛ́pate.

c. guh hide has prolongation instead of guṇa: thus, ǵū́hati.

d. kram stride regularly lengthens its vowel in the active, but not in the middle: thus, kŕā́mati, krámate; but the vowel-quantities are somewhat mixed up, even from the oldest language down; — klam tire is said to form klāmati etc., but is not quotable; — cam with the preposition ā rinse the mouth forms ́ā́cāmati.

e. In the later language are found occasional forms of this class from mṛj wipe; and they show the same vṛddhi (instead of guṇa) which belongs to the root in its more proper inflection (627): thus, mārjasva.

f. The grammarians give a number of roots in urv, which they declare to lengthen the u in the present-stem. Only three are found in (quite limited) use, and they show no forms anywhere with short u. All appear to be of secondary formation from roots in  or ar. The root murch or mūrch coagulate has likewise only ū in quotable forms.

g. The onomatopoetic root ṣṭhīv spew is written by the grammarians as ṣṭhiv, and declared to lengthen its vowel in the present-system: compare 240 b.