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581. In all dependent constructions

In all dependent constructions, it is still harder even in the oldest language to establish a definite distinction between subjunctive and optative; a method of use of either is scarcely to be found to which the other does not furnish a practical equivalent — and then, in the later language, such uses are represented by the optative alone. A few examples will be sufficient to illustrate this:

a. After relative pronouns and conjunctions in general: yā́ vyūṣúr yā́ç ca nūnáṁ vyucchā́n (RV.) which have shone forth [hitherto], and which shall hereafter shine forth; yó ‘to jā́yātā asmā́kaṁ sá éko ‘sat (TS.) whoever shall be born of her, let him be one of us; yó vāí tā́n vidyā́t pratyákṣaṁ sá brahmā́ véditā syāt (AV.) whoever shall know them face to face, he may pass for a knowing priest; putrā́ṇāṁ ... jātā́nāṁ janáyāç ca yā́n (AV.) of sons born and whom thou mayest bear; yásya ... átithir gṛhā́n āgácchet (AV.) to whosesoever house he may come as guest; yatamáthā kāmáyeta táthā kuryāt (ÇB.) in whatever way he may choose, so may he do it; yárhi hótā yájamānasya nā́ma gṛhṇīyā́t tárhi brūyāt (TS.) when the sacrificing priest shall name the name of the offerer, then he may speak; svarūpaṁ yadā draṣṭum icchethāḥ (MBh.) when thou shalt desire to see thine own form.

b. In more distinctly conditional constructions: yájāma devā́n yádi çaknávāma (RV.) we will offer to the gods if we shall be able; yád agne syā́m aháṁ tváṁ tváṁ vā ghā syā́ aháṁ syúṣ ṭe satyā́ ihā́ ”çíṣaḥ (RV.) if I were thou, Agni, or if thou wert I, thy wishes should be realized on the spot; yó dyā́m atisárpāt parástān ná sá mucyātāi váruṇasya rā́jñaḥ (AV.) though one steal far away beyond the sky, he shall not escape king Varuna; yád ánāçvān upaváset kṣódhukaḥ syād yád açnīyā́d rudrò ‘sya paçū́n abhí manyeta (TS.) if he should continue without eating, he would starve; if he should eat, Rudra would attack his cattle; prārthayed yadi māṁ kaçcid daṇḍyaḥ sa me pumān bhavet (MBh.) if any man soever should desire me, he should suffer punishment. These and the like constructions, with the optative, are very common in the Brāhmaṇas and later.

c. In final clauses: yáthā ’háṁ çatruhó ‘sāni (AV.) that I may be a slayer of my enemies; gṛṇānā́ yáthā píbātho ándhaḥ (RV.) that being praised with song ye may drink the draught; urāú yáthā táva çárman mádema (RV.) in order that we rejoice in thy wide protection; úpa jānīta yáthe ‘yám púnar āgácchet (ÇB.)contrive that she come back again; kṛpāṁ kuryād yathā mayi (MBh.) so that he may take pity on me. This is in the Veda one of the most frequent uses of the subjunctive; and in its correlative negative form, with néd in order that not or lest (always followed by an accented verb), it continues not rare in the Brāhmaṇas.

d. The indicative is also very commonly used in final clauses after yathā: thus, yáthā ’yáṁ púruṣo ‘ntárikṣam anucárati (ÇB.) in order that this man may traverse the atmosphere; yathā na vighnaḥ kriyate (R.) so that no hindrance may arise; yathā ’yaṁ naçyati tathā vidheyam (H.) it must be so managed that he perish.

e. With the conditional use of subjunctive and optative is farther to be compared that of the so-called conditional tense: see below, 950.

f. As is indicated by many of the examples given above, it is usual in a conditional sentence, containing protasis and apodosis, to employ always the same mode, whether subjunctive or optative (or conditional), in each of the two clauses. For the older language, this is a rule well-nigh or quite without exception.