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781. The formation of the perfect

The formation of the perfect is essentially alike in all verbs, differences among them being of only subordinate consequence, or having the character of irregularities. The characteristics of the formation are these:

1. a stem made by reduplication of the root;

2. a distinction between stronger and weaker forms of stem, the former being used (as in presents of the First or non-a-conjugation) in the singular active, the latter in all other persons;

3. endings in some respects peculiar, unlike those of the present;

4. the frequent use, especially in the later language, of a union-vowel इ i between stem and endings.