Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER X‎ > ‎

788. A small number of roots with initial a

A small number of roots with initial a or  (ar) show the anomalous reduplication ān in the perfect.

a. Thus (the forms occurring mainly in the older language only):

añj or aj, which forms the pres. anákti, has the perfect ānañja and ānajé etc. (with anajā and anajyāt);

 attain (from which comes once in RV. anáçāmahāi), has the weak forms ānaçma etc. (with opt. ānaçām), ānaçé etc. (and LÇS. has ānaçadhve), and the strong forms ānáṅçaand ānāça — along with the regular āça etc.;

ṛdh (from which comes once ṛṇádhat) has ānṛdhús and ānṛdhe;

ṛc or arc has ānṛcús and ānṛcé, and later ānarca and ānarcus;

arh has (in TS.) ānṛhús;

anāha (RV., once) has been referred to a root ah, elsewhere unknown, and explained as of this formation; hut with altogether doubtful propriety.

b. The later grammar, then, sets up the rule that roots beginning with a and ending with more than one consonant have ān as their regular reduplication; and such perfects are taught from roots like akṣarj, and añc or ac; but the only other quotable forms appear to be ānarchat (MBh.) and ānarṣat (TA.); which are accordingly reckoned as "pluperfects".