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790. Absence of reduplication

Absence of reduplication is met with in some cases. Thus:

a. The root vid know has, from the earliest period to the latest, a perfect without reduplication, but otherwise regularly made and inflected: thus, védavéttha, etc., pple vidvā́ṅs. It has the meaning of a present. The root vid find forms the regular vivéda.

b. A few other apparently perfect forms lacking a reduplication are found in RV.: they are takṣathus and takṣusyamátus, skambháthus and skambhus, nindima (forninidima?), dhiṣe and dhire (? √dhā), and vidré and arhire (? see 613). And AV. VS. have cetatus. The participial words dāçvā́ṅs, mīḍhvā́ṅs, sāhvā́ṅs are common in the oldest language; and RV. has once jānúṣas (√jñā), and khidvas (voc.), perhaps for cikhidvas.

c. A few sporadic cases also are quotable from the later language, especially from the epics: thus, karṣatus, ceṣṭa and ceṣṭatus, bhrājatus, sarpa, çaṅsus and çaṅsire, dhvaṅsire, sraṅsire, jalpire, edhire; also the pples çaṅsivāṅs and darçivāṅs, the latter being not infrequent.