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794. As regards the weakening

As regards the weakening in weak forms:

a. It has been seen above (783 b) that roots beginning with i or u fuse reduplicating and radical syllable together to ī or ū in the weak forms; and (784) that roots contracting va and ya tou or i in the reduplication do it also in the root in weak forms, the two elements here also coalescing to ū or ī.

b. A few roots having ya and va after a first initial consonant, and reduplicating from the semivowel (785), contract the ya and va to i and u: thus, vivic from √vyacvividh from √vyadh (but vivyadhus MBh.), suṣup from √svap. The extended roots jyāpyāvyāçvāhvā show a similar apparent contraction, making their weak forms from the simpler rootsjī, pī, vī, çū, hū, while hvā must and çvā may get their strong forms also from the same (and only jijyāú is quotable from the others).

c. The root grabh or grah (if it be written thus: see 729 a) contracts to gṛh, making the three forms of stem jagráh (1st and 2d sing. act.), jagrā́h (3d), and jagṛh; but prach (if it be so written: see 756 a) remains unchanged throughout.

d. Some roots omit in weak forms of this tense, or in some of them, a nasal which is found in its strong forms: thus, we have cakradé etc. (RV.) from √krandtatasré (RV.) from √taṅsdadaçvā́ṅs (RV.) from √daṅçbedhús, bedhé, etc. (AV.) from √bandhsejus (ÇB.) from √sañjcaskabhāná (AV.) from √skambhtastabhús etc. (V.), tastabhāná(V.B.), from √stambh. Compare also 788 a.

e. A number of roots having medial a between single consonants drop that vowel. These are, in the later language, gam, khan, janhan, ghas; they form the weak stems jagm, cakhn, jajñ, jaghn (compare 637), jakṣ (compare 640): but RV. has once jajanús.

f. In the old language are found in like manner mamnāthe and mamnāte from √manvavné from √vantatne, tatniṣe, tatnire from √tan (beside tatane, and tate, as if from √); paptima and paptús and paptivā́ṅs from √pat (beside pet-forms; below, g); papné from √pansaçcima and saçcussaçce and saçciré, from √sac.

g. Roots in general having medial a before a single final consonant, and beginning also with a single consonant that is repeated unchanged in the reduplication — that is, not an aspirate, a guttural mute, or h — contract their root and reduplication together into one syllable, having e as its vowel: thus, √sad forms the weak stem sed, √pac forms pec, √yam forms yem; and so on.

h. Certain roots not having the form here defined are declared by the grammarians to undergo the same contraction — most of them optionally; and examples of them are in general of very rare occurrence. They are as follows: rāj (E.C.) and rādh (radh?), notwithstanding their long vowel; phaṇphal (phelire C.), bhaj (occurs from RV. down), though their initial is changed in reduplication; traptras (tresus E.C.), çrathsyarnsvan, though they begin with more than one consonant; dambh (debhús, RV., from the weaker dabh), though it ends with more than one; and bhram (bhremus etc. KSS.), bhrāj, granth, svañj, in spite of more reasons than one to the contrary. And ÇB. has sejus from √sañj, and KB. hasçremus from √çram. On the other hand, RV. has once rarabhmá, and R. has papatus, for petus, from √pat.

i. This contraction is allowed also in 2d sing. act. when the ending is itha: thus, tenitha beside tatantha (but no examples are quotable from the older language).

j. The roots çaç and dad (from : 672) are said to reject the contraction; but no perfect forms of either appear to have been met with in use.

k. From √tṛ (or tar) occurs terus (R.); and jerus from √jṛ is authorized by the grammarians — both against the general analogy of roots in .

l. Roots ending in ā lose their ā before all endings beginning with a vowel, including those endings that assume the union-vowel i (796) — unless in the latter case it be preferred to regard the i as a weakened form of the ā.