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797. The most important rules

The most important rules as to the use of इ i in the later language are as follows:

a. The रे re of 3d pl. mid. has it always.

b. The other consonant-endings, except थ tha of 2d sing. act., take it in nearly all verbs.

c. But it is rejected throughout by eight verbs — namely kṛ makebhṛ bearsṛ govṛ choosedru runçru hearstu praisesru flow; and it is allowably (not usually) rejected by some others, in general accordance with their usage in other formations.

d. In 2d sing. act., it is rejected not only by the eight verbs just given, but also by many others, ending in vowels or in consonants, which in other formations have no इ i; but it is also taken by many verbs which reject it in other formations; — and it is optional in many verbs, including those in आ ā (of which the आ ā is lost when the ending is इथ itha), and most of those in इi, ई ī, and उ u.

e. The rules of the grammarians, especially as regards the use of tha or itha, run out into infinite detail, and are not wholly consistent with one another; and, as the forms are very infrequent, it is not possible to criticise the statements made, and to tell how far they are founded on the facts of usage.

f. With this i, a final radical i or ī is not combined, but changed into y or iy. The ū of √bhū becomes ūv throughout before a vowel.