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800. By way of illustration of the rules

Examples of inflection. By way of illustration of the rules given above may be given in full the perfect indicative inflection of the following verbs:

a. As example of the normal inflection of a root with final consonant, we take the root बुध् budh know: its strong form of perfect-stem is बुबोध् bubódh; weak form, बुबुध् bubudh.

active.middle.
s.d.p.s.d.p.
1बुबोध
bubódha
बुबुधिव
bubudhivá
बुबुधिम
-dhimá
बुबुधे
bubudhé
बुबुधिवहे
-dhiváhe
बुबुधिमहे
-dhimáhe
2बुबोधिथ
bubódhitha
बुबुधथुस्
-dháthus
बुबुध
-dhá
बुबुधिषे
bubudhiṣé
बुबुधाथे
-dhā́the
बुबुधिध्वे
-dhidhvé
3बुबोध
bubódha
बुबुधतुस्
-dhátus
बुबुधुस्
-dhús
बुबुधे
bubudhé
बुबुधाते
-dhā́te
बुबुधिरे
-dhiré

b. The asserted variety of possible accent in 2d sing. act. (above, 793 g) needs to be noted both in this and in the remaining paradigms.

c. As example of the normal inflection of a root with final i or u-vowel, we may take the root नी  lead: its forms of stem are निनय् nináy or निनाय् ninā́y, and निनी ninī.


1निनय, निनाय
nináya, ninā́ya
निन्यिव
ninyivá
निन्यिम
ninyimá
निन्ये
ninyé
निन्यिवहे
ninyiváhe
निन्यिमहे
ninyimáhe
2निनेथ, निनयिथ
ninétha, nináyitha
निन्यथुस्
ninyáthus
निन्य
ninyá
निन्यिषे
ninyiṣé
निन्याथे
ninyā́the
निन्यिध्वे
ninyidhvé
3निनाय
ninā́ya
निन्यतुस्
ninyátus
निन्युस्
ninyús
निन्ये
ninyé
निन्याते
ninyā́te
निन्यिरे
ninyiré

d. The root krī would make (129 a) in weak forms cikriyivácikriyátuscikriyús, etc.; and √bhū is inflected as follows in the active (middle forms not quotable):

1babhū́vababhūvivábabhūvimá
2babhū́tha, babhū́vithababhūváthusbabhūvá
3babhū́vababhūvátusbabhūvús

Other roots in ū or u change this to uv before the initial vowel of an ending.

e. As example of the inflection of a root ending in आ ā, we may take दा  give: its forms of stem are ददा dadā́ and दद् dad (or ददि dadi: see above, 7941).

1ददौ
dadāú
ददिव
dadivá
ददिम
dadimá
ददे
dadé
ददिवहे
vdadiváhe
ददिमहे
dadimáhe
2ददाथ, ददिथ
dadā́tha, dadithá
ददथुस्
dadáthus
दद
dadá
ददिषे
dadiṣé
ददाथे
dadā́the
ददिध्वे
dadidhvé
3ददौ
dadāú
ददतुस्
dadátus
ददुस्
dadús
ददे
dadé
ददाते
dadā́te
ददिरे
dadiré
f. The RV. has once paprā́ for paprāú (and jahā́ for jahāú?).

g. As example of a root with medial अ a showing fusion of root and reduplication, resulting in medial ए e, in the weak forms (794 g), we may take तन्,tan stretch: its forms of stem are ततन्tatán or ततान् tatā́n, and तेन् ten.

1ततन, ततान
tatána, tatā́na
तेनिव
tenivá
तेनिम
tenimá
तेने
tené
तेनिवहे
teniváhe
तेनिमहे
tenimáhe
2ततन्थ, तेनिथ
tatántha, tenithá
तेनथुस्
tenáthus
तेन
tená
तेनिषे
teniṣé
तेनाथे
tenā́the
तेनिध्वे
tenidhvé
3ततान
tatā́na
तेनतुस्
tenátus
तेनुस्
tenús
तेने
tené
तेनाते
tenā́te
तेनिरे
teniré

h. The root jan, with the others which expel medial a in weak forms (794 e), makes jajántha or jajñithá, jajñivá, jajñús; jajñé, jajñimáhe, jajñiré; and so on.

i. As example of a root with initial व va contracted to उ u in the reduplication, and contracted with the reduplication to ऊ ū in weak forms (784), we may take वच् vac speak: its forms of stem are उवच् uvác or उवाच् uvā́c, and ऊच् ūc.

1उवच, उवाच
uváca, uvā́ca
ऊचिव
ūcivá
ऊचिम
ūcimá
ऊचे
ūcé
ऊचिवहे
ūciváhe
ऊचिमहे
ūcimáhe
2उवक्थ, उवचिथे
uvákthauvácitha
ऊचथुस्
ūcáthus
ऊच
ūcá
ऊचिषे
ūciṣé
ऊचाथे
ūcā́the
ऊचिध्वे
ūcidhvé
3उवाच
uvā́ca
ऊचतुस्
ūcátus
ऊचुस्
ūcús
ऊचे
ūcé
ऊचाते
ūcáte
ऊचिरे
ūciré

j. In like manner, √yaj forms iyája or iyā́jaiyáṣṭha or iyájithaījé, ījiṣé, and so on; √uc has uvóca and uvócitha in the strong forms, and all the rest like vac.

k. Of the four roots in ऋ  mentioned at 797 c, the inflection is as follows:

1चकर, चकार
cakára, cakā́ra
चकृव
cakṛvá
चकृम
cakṛmá
चक्रे
cakré
चकृवहे
cakṛváhe
चकृमहे
cakṛmáhe
2चकर्थ
cakártha
चक्रथुस्
cakráthus
चक्र
cakrá
चकृषे
cakṛṣé
चक्राथे
cakrā́the
चकृध्वे
cakṛdhvé
3चकार
cakā́ra
चक्रतुस्
cakrátus
चक्रुस्
cakrús
चक्रे
cakré
चक्राते
cakrā́te
चक्रिरे
cakriré
l. Of the roots in ऋ  in general, the first persons are made as follows:
1दधर, दधार
dadhára, dadhā́ra
दथ्रिव
dadhrivá
दथ्रिम
dadhrimá
दथ्रे
dadhré
दथ्रिवहे
dadhriváhe
दथ्रिमहे
dadhrimáhe

m. We may further add here, finally, the active inflection (the middle is not in use) of the perfect of as be, which (like babhū́va and cakā́ra, given above) is frequently employed as an auxiliary.

1ā́saāsiváāsimá
2ā́sithaāsáthusāsá
3ā́saāsátusāsús