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824. Under the name of aorist

Under the name of aorist are included (as was pointed out above, 532) three quite distinct formations, each of which has its sub-varieties: namely —

I. A simple aorist (equivalent to the Greek "second aorist"), analogous in all respects as to form and inflection with the imperfect. It has two varieties: 1. the root-aorist, with a tense-stem identical with the root (corresponding to an imperfect of the root-class); 2. the a-aorist, with a tense-stem ending in अ á, or with union-vowel अ a before the endings (corresponding to an imperfect of the á-class).

II. 3. A reduplicating aorist, perhaps in origin identical with an imperfect of the reduplicating class, but having come to be separated from it by marked peculiarities of form. It usually has a union-vowel अ a before the endings, or is inflected like an imperfect of one of the a-classes; but a few forms occur in the Veda without such vowel.

III. A sigmatic or sibilant aorist (corresponding to the Greek "first aorist"), having for its tense-sign a स् s added to the root, either directly or with a preceding auxiliary इ i; its endings are usually added immediately to the tense-sign, but in a small number of roots with a union-vowel अ a; a very few roots also are increased by स् s for its formation; and according to these differences it falls into four varieties: namely, A. without union-vowel अ a before endings; 4. s-aorist, with स् s alone added to the root; 5. iṣ-aorist, the same with interposed इ i; 6. siṣ-aorist, the same as the preceding with स् s added at the end of the root; B. with union-vowel अ a, 7. sa-aorist.