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834. So far only active forms

So far only active forms have been considered. In the middle, a considerable part of the forms are such as are held by the grammarians (881) to belong to the s-aorist, with omission of the s: they doubtless belong, however, mostly or altogether, here. Thus:

a. From roots ending in vowels, we have adhithās, adhita (also ahita), and adhīmahi; adithās, adita, and adimahi (and adīmahi from √ cut); áçīta (?); sīmáhi; ásthithās and ásthita and ásthiran, forms of ā-roots; — of -roots, akri, ákṛthās, ákṛta, akrātām, ákrata (and the anomalous kránta); avri, avṛthās, avṛta; ārta, ārata; mṛthās, amṛta; dhṛthās; adṛthās; astṛta; ahṛthās; gūrta; — of i and u roots, the only examples are ahvi (? AV., once), áhūmahi, and ácidhvam. The absence of any analogies whatever for the omission of a s in such forms, and the occurrence of avri and akri and ákrata, show that their reference to the s-aorist is probably without sufficient reason.

b. As regards roots ending in consonants, the case is more questionable, since loss of s after a final consonant before thās and ta (and, of course, dhvam) would be in many cases required by euphonic rule (233 c ff.). We find, however, such unmistakable middle inflection of the root-aorist as ayuji, áyukthās, áyukta, ayujmahi, áyugdhvam, áyujran; ā́ṣṭa and ā́çata; náṅçi; apadi (1st sing.) and apadmahi and apadran; ámanmahi; gánvahi and áganmahi and ágmata; atnata; ájani (1st sing.) and ajñata (3d pl.); from √gam are made agathās and agata, from √tanatathās and átata, and from √manamata, with treatment of the final like that of han in present inflection (637). The endingran is especially frequent in 3d pl., being taken by a number of verbs which have no other middle person of this aorist: thus, agṛbhran, ásṛgran, adṛçran, abudhran, ávṛtran, ajuṣran, akṛpran, aspṛdhran, avasran, áviçran; and ram is found beside ran in ádṛçram, ábudhram, ásṛgram.

c. From roots of which the final would combine with s to kṣ, it seems more probable that aorist-forms showing k (instead of ) before the ending belong to the root-aorist: such areamukthās (and ámugdhvam), apṛkthās and apṛkta, ábhakta, avṛkta, asakthās and asakta, rikthās, vikthās and vikta, arukta; apraṣṭa, ayaṣṭa, áspaṣṭa, asṛṣṭhās and ásṛṣṭa, and mṛṣṭhās would be the same in either case.

d. There remain, as cases of more doubtful belonging, and probably to be ranked in part with the one formation and in part with the other, according to their period and to the occurrence of other persons: chitthās, nutthā́s and ánutta and ánuddhvam, patthās, bhitthās, amatta, atapthās, alipta, asṛpta; and finally, árabdha, alabdha, aruddha, abuddha, ayuddha, and drogdhās (MBh.: read drugdhās): see 883.