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837. Optative. The optative active

Optative. The optative active of this aorist constitutes, with a s interposed between mode-sign and personal endings (567), the precative active of the Hindu grammarians, and is allowed by them to be made from every verb, they recognizing no connection between it and the aorist. But in the 2d sing. the interposed s is not distinguishable from the personal ending; and, after the earliest period (see 838), the ending crowds out the sibilant in the 3d sing., which thus comes to end in yāt instead of yās (compare 555 a).

a. In the older language, however, pure optative forms, without the s, are made from this tense. From roots in ā occur (with change of ā to e before the y: 250 d) deyām, dheyām anddheyus, and stheyāma; in u-vowels, bhūyā́ma; in kriyāma; in consonants, açyā́m and açyā́ma and açyusvṛjyāmçakyāmyujyāva and yujyā́tāmsāhyāma, andtṛdyus.

b. The optative middle of the root-aorist is not recognized by the Hindu grammarians as making a part of the precative formation. The RV. has, however, two precative forms of it, namelypadīṣṭá and mucīṣṭa. Much more common in the older language are pure optative forms: namely, açīya and açīmáhi (this optative is especially common), indhīya, gmīya, murīya, rucīya; arīta, uhīta, vurīta; idhīmahi, naçīmahi, nasīmahi, pṛcīmahi, mudīmahi, yamīmahi; and probably, from ā-roots, sīmáhi and dhīmahi(which might also be augmentless indicative, since adhīmahi and adhītām also occur). All these forms except the three in 3d sing. might be precative according to the general understanding of that mode, as being of persons which even by the native authorities are not claimed ever to exhibit the inserted sibilant.