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839. Imperative forms of the root-aorist

Precative active forms of this aorist are made from the earliest period of the language. In RV., they do not occur from any root which has not also other aorist forms of the same class to show. The RV. forms are: 1st sing., bhūyāsam; 2d sing., avyās, jñeyās, bhūyā́s, mṛdhyās, sahyās; 3d sing. (in -yās, for -yāst; RV. has no 3d sing, in yāt, which is later the universal ending), avyās, açyās, ṛdhyās, gamyā́s, daghyās, peyās, bhūyā́s, yamyās, yūyās, vṛjyās, çrūyās, sahyās; 1st pl., kriyāsma (besidekriyāma: 837 a). AV. has six 1st persons sing, in -yā́sam, one 2d in -yā́s, one 3d in -yāt (and one in -yās, in a RV. passage), three 1st pl. in -yā́sma (beside one in yāma, in a RV. passage), and the 2d bhūyāstha (doubtless a false reading: TB. has -sta in the corresponding passage). From this time on, the pure optative forms nearly disappear (the exceptions are given in 837 a). But the precative forms are nowhere common, excepting as made from √bhū; and from no other root is anything like a complete series of persons quotable (only bhūyāsvaand bhūyāstām being wanting; and these two persons have no representative from any root). All together, active optative or precative forms are made in the older language from over fifty roots; and the epic and classical texts add them from hardly a dozen more: see further 925.