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840. Participles of the Root-aorist

In the oldest language, of the RV., are found a number of participles which must be reckoned as belonging to this formation.

a. In the active, they are extremely few: namely, kránt, citánt (?), gmánt, sthā́nt, bhidánt, vṛdhánt, dyutant- (only in composition), and probably ṛdhánt. And BhP. hasmṛṣant (but probably by error, for mṛṣyant).

b. In the middle, they are in RV. much more numerous. The accent is usually on the final of the stem: thus, arāṇá, idhāṇá, krāṇá, juṣāṇá, tṛṣāṇá, nidāná, piçāná, pṛcāná, prathāná, budhāná, bhiyāná, manāná, mandāná, yujāná, rucāná, vipāná, vrāṇá, urāṇá, çubhāná, sacāná, suvāná or svāná, sṛjāná, spṛdhāná, hiyāná; — but sometimes on the root-syllable: thus, cítāna, cyávāna, rúhāṇa, úhāna (pres.?), vásāna, çúmbhāna; — while a few show both accentuations(compare 619 d): thus, dṛçāná and dṛ́çānadyutāná and dyútānayatāná and yátāna; and cetāna and hrayāṇa occur only in composition. A very few of these are found once or twice in other texts, namely citāna, dyutāna, ruhāṇa, vasāna, suvāna; and -kupāna occurs once in Āpast. (xiv. 28. 4).