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855. Isolated forms

Isolated forms which have more or less completely the aspect of indicative presents are made in the oldest language from some roots beside the aorist-systems of the first two classes. It must be left for maturer research to determine how far they may be relics of original presents, and how far recent productions, made in the way of conversion of the aorist-stem to a root in value.

a. Such forms are the following: from √kṛ makekárṣi, kṛthas, kṛtha, kṛṣe; from √gam, gathá; from √ci gatherceti; from √ givedā́ti, dāta; from √dhā putdhāti; from √ drinkpātháspānti; from √bhṛbharti; from √muc, mucánti; from √rudh, rudhmas (?); from √vṛt, vartti.