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899. The rules as to the strengthening

he rules as to the strengthening of the root are as follows:

a. A final vowel has vṛddhi in the active, and guṇa in the middle: thus, अपाविष् apāviṣ and अपविष् apaviṣ from √पू  cleanse; अतारिष् atāriṣ, act., from √तृ tṛ pass; अशयिष् açayiṣ, mid., from √शी çī lie.

b. A medial vowel has guṇa, if capable of it, in both voices: thus, अलेशिष् aleçiṣ, act. and mid., from √लिश् liç tear; अरोचिष् arociṣ, from √रुच् ruc shine; अवर्षिष् avarṣiṣ from √वृष् vṛṣrain; but अजीविष् ajīviṣ from √जीव् jīv live.

c. Medial अ a is sometimes lengthened in the active; but it more usually remains unchanged in both voices.

d. The roots in the older language which show the lengthening are kan, tan, ran, stan, svan, nan, vraj, sad, mad, car, tsar, svar, jval, das, tras. Fromran, san, kram, vad, rakṣ, and sah occur forms of both kinds. From √math or manth are made the two stems mathiṣ and manthiṣ.