Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XI‎ > ‎

923. Precative middle is made

a. The precative middle is made by adding the middle precative endings (above, 568) to the root increased by स् s or इष् iṣ — that is, to the tense-stem of an s-aorist or of an iṣ-aorist (but without augment).

b. The root is strengthened according to the rules that apply in forming the middle-stem of the s and of the iṣ-aorists respectively: in general, namely, a final vowel is gunated in both formations; but a medial vowel, only before इष् iṣ.

c. As was pointed out above (567) the middle precative is really the optative of certain aorists, with the insertion of a sibilant between mode-sign and ending only (so far as authenticated by use) in the 2d and 3d singular. In the older language, such forms are oftenest made from the s-aorist (895) and the iṣ-aorist (907); but also from the root-aorist (837 b), the a-aorist (850 a), the reduplicated aorist (870), and the siṣ-aorist (914 b); and even from the perfect (812 b).