Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XII‎ > ‎

944. In the third persons

In the third persons, the nom. masc. of the noun, in the three numbers respectively (373), is used without auxiliary: thus, मविता bhavitā́ he or she or it will be; मवितारौbhavitā́rāu both will be; मवितारस् bhavitā́ras they will be. In the other persons, the first and second persons present of √अस् as be (636) are used as auxiliary; and they are combined, in all numbers, with the singular nom. masc. of the noun.

a. Thus, from √दा  give:

active.
s.d.p.
1दातास्मि
dātā́smi
दातास्वस्
dātā́svas
दातास्मस्
dātā́smas
2दातासि
dātā́si
दातास्थस्
dātā́sthas
दातास्थ
dātā́stha
3दाता
dātā́
दातारौ
dātā́rāu
दातारस्
dātā́ras

b. Occasionally, in the epics and later (almost never in the older language), the norm of the tense as given above is in various respects departed from: thus, by use of the auxiliary in the 3d person also; by its omission in the 1st or 2d person; by inversion of the order of noun and auxiliary; by interposition of other words between them; by use of a dual or plural nom. with the auxiliary; and by use of a feminine form of the noun. Examples are: vaktā ’sti (MBh.) he will speaknihantā (MBh.) I shall or thou wilt strike downyoddhā ’ham (R.) I shall fight,ahaṁ draṣṭā (MBh.) I shall seekartā ’haṁ te (BhP.) I will do for theetvam bhavitā (MBh. Megh.) thou wilt beasmi gantā (MBh.) I shall gopratigrahītā tām asmi(MBh.) I will receive herhantā tvam asi (MBh.) thou wilt slaykartārāu svaḥ (MBh.) we two shall dodraṣṭry asmi (MBh.) I (f.) shall seeudbhavitrī (Nāiṣ.) she will increase,gantrī (Y.) she will go. AB. has once sotā as 2d sing., thou wilt press; JUB. makes the combination çmaçānāni bhavitāras the cemeteries will be.

c. An optative of the auxiliary appears to be once used, in yoddhā syām I would fight (R. i. 22. 25 Peterson; but the Bombay edition reads yoddhuṁ yāsyāmi).