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955. Of more irregular character

Of more irregular character are the following:

a. A number of roots ending in am retain the nasal, and lengthen the radical vowel (as also in some others of their verbal forms): thus, kāṁta, krāṁtá, klāṁtá, kṣāṁta, cāṁta, tāṁtá, dāṁtá, bhrāṁta, vāṁtá, çāṁtá (√çam be quiet), çrāṁtá (from √kam etc.); and one in andhvan sound, makes dhvāntá.

b. A few roots in an make their participle from another root-form in ā: thus, khātá, jātá, -vāta, sātádham has both dhamitá and dhmātá.

c. Certain roots in īv take their -form (765 a): thus, dyūtá (√dīv play), ṣṭhyūta, syūtá; but √mīv makes -mūta.

d. From roots in changeable  (generally taking na: 957 b) are made also pūrtá (√pṛ fill: beside pṛta), çīrta and çūrtá (√çṛ crush); and çīrta is further made from √çrī mix.

e. Double forms are mugdhá and mūḍha, sāḍhá and soḍha, dhūrta and dhruta, hvṛta and hrutá.

f. The root  give makes dattá (from the secondary root-form dad; but dāta also in V.). But the anomalously contracted form -tta (as if for dāta, with the radical vowel lost) is also frequent in composition, especially with prepositions: thus, ā́tta, ánutta, párītta, prátta, prátītta; rarely with other elements, as devátta, punartta, marútta (?). And the same abbreviated form comes from √ divide in ávatta.

g. The roots making participles in both ta and ita, or ta and na, or in all three, will be noted in the next two paragraphs.