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956. The suffix with i

The suffix with इ i, or in the form इत itá, used especially with roots having finals that are only with difficulty, if at all, combinable with त् t according to the usual analogies of the language, and often with roots of a secondary, derivative, or late character; but also not seldom with original roots.

a. Thus, of roots presenting difficulties of combination: — 1. all that end in two consonants (save those of which one consonant is lost by a weakening process: 964 a, b): e. g. çan̄k, valg, vāñch, lajj, ubj, ceṣṭ, ghūrṇ, katth, nind, jalp, cumb, umbh, khall, pinv, çaṅs (also çastá), rakṣ, hiṅs, garh (in all, over fifty); but takṣ makestaṣṭá; — 2. all that end in linguals (including  after a or ā): e. g. aṭ, truṭ, paṭh, luṭh, īḍ, vruḍ, bhaṇ, kaṣ, bhāṣ; — 3. all that end in surd spirants: e. g. likh, grath, nāth, kuth, riph, guph; — 4. all that end in l: e. g. cal, gil, mīl, lul, khel: — 6. all that end in other persistent semivowels: namely, carv (also cūrṇa), jīv (for the other roots in īv, see 955 c), dhāv runsev, day, vyay, pūy; — 6. ujh. — This class includes more than half of the whole number that take only ita.

b. Of other roots ending in consonants: — 1. in gutturals, cak, ḍhāuk (çak has both ta and ita); çlāgh; — 2. in palatals, ac (also akná), uc, kuc, khac, yāc, rucaj?, kūj, vraj, also tyaj and mṛj in late texts (usually tyaktá and mṛṣṭá); — 3. in dentals, at, pat, çcut, also yat in epos (elsewhere only yattá); krad, khād, gad, cud, nad, mud, mṛd, rad, rud, vad, vid knowhrād; also nud in epos (elsewhere nuttá and nunna); mad has both mattá and maditá (the majority of roots in d take na: 957 d); edh, kṣudh, gadh, dudh, nādh, bādh, spardhan, in, kvan, dhvan, pan, ran ringvan, stan, svan, and dhvan (also dhvāntá); — 4. in labials, cup, yup, rup, and usually kup (kupta late) and lap (lapta epic), occasionally kṣip, gup, tap, dṛp, vap, çap, while jap has both ta and itagrabh (gṛbhītá), çubh, skabh, and occasionally lubh, while kṣubh and stabh have both forms; tim, dham, çam laborstim, and kṣam in epos (also kṣāṁta); — 5. in spirants,  eatīç, kāç, kṛç, vāç, çac,while piç has both forms, and mṛç takes ita only late; iṣ sendīṣ, kuṣ, tṛṣ, tviṣ, pruṣ, miṣ, rūṣ, heṣ, hreṣ, also muṣ except late, while dhṛṣ, ruṣ, and hṛṣ show both forms; ās, bhas, bhās, ras, las, vas clothehas, also as throw occasionally, while kas, gras, yas, vas shinevas dwellçās (with çiṣṭá and çāsta), çvas, and hrasmake both forms; īh, grah (gṛhītá), jah (secondary form of ), mah, rah, and occasionally ūh remove, while gāh has both forms.

c. Of roots ending in vowels, only çī lie, which makes çayita (with guṇa of root, as elsewhere: 629).

d. In general, a root maintains its full form before ita; but there are a few exceptions: thus, gṛbhītá and gṛhītá (the root being reckoned as grabh and grah: see 729), uditá (alsovadita in the later language), uṣita (√vas shine; beside uṣṭá), uṣita (√vas dwell: also sporadically vasita and uṣṭa), ukṣitá (√vaká increase), çṛthitá (√çrath). From √mṛj are made both mṛjita and mārjita (with strengthening as in present and elsewhere: 627), beside mṛṣṭá.

e. Instead of i, long ī is taken in gṛbhītá and gṛhītá.