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957. The suffix always without auxiliary i

The suffix न  (always without auxiliary इ i) is taken instead of त  by a number of roots (about seventy). Thus:

a. Certain roots in ā: thus, kṣā, glā, drā rundrā sleep, (also drita?), mlā (also mlātá),  blow (also vāta), çyā (also çīná), styā, hā leave (also hīná and hāta),  go forth; and  divide makes diná (also dita and -tta). Further, certain roots in i- and u-vowels: thus, kṣi destroy (kṣīṇa; also kṣitá), ḍī, pī, lī clingvlī, çī or çyā coagulate(beside çyāna and çīta), hrī (beside hrīta);  burn (also duta), lū, çū; and dīv lament makes dyūna (compare 765).

b. Roots in , which before the suffix becomes īr or ūr: the forms are, arṇa (late; beside ṛtá), kīrṇa (√kṛ scatter), gīrṇá (√gṛ swallow), jīrṇá and jūrṇá (√jṛ waste away), tīrṇá andtūrṇa (also tūrtá), dīrṇá (√dṛ pierce: also dṛta), pūrṇá (√pṛ fill: also pūrtá and pṛta), mūrṇá (√mṛ crush), çīrṇá (√çṛ crush: also çīrta and çūrtá?), stīrṇá (also stṛta). Of like character with these are īrṇá from √īr, cīrṇa (beside carita) from √cargūrṇa (beside gūrtá) from √gur, a secondary form of gṛ, and cūrṇa (beside carvita) from √carv, which is also plainly a secondary root.

c. A few roots ending in j (which becomes g before the suffix, against the usual rule of internal combination: 216 f): thus, bhagna (√bhañj), bhugna (√bhuj bend), magná (√majj),rugṇá, vigna (beside vikta). Further, two or three ending in c (similarly treated): thus, akná (√ac or añc: also acita and añcita), vṛkná (√vraçc), and apparently -pṛgṇa (RV., once: with doubly irregular change of root-final, from √pṛc). And one root in glagna.

d. A considerable number, some of them very common ones, of roots in d (which, against ordinary rule, becomes n before the suffix: 157 b). The forms are: unna (also utta), arṇṇa?,klinna, kṣuṇṇa, kṣviṇṇa, khinna, channa, chinná, chṛṇṇá, tunná, tṛṇṇá, nunna (also nuttá and nudita), panná, bhinná, vinna (√vid find: also vittá),çanna (√çad fall), sanná (also sattá), skanná (√skand), syanná (√syand), svinná, hanna. And ánna food, in spite of its different accent, appears to be a like formation from √adeat.