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960. Derivative words of this formation

Derivative words of this formation are found in RV., but without anything like a participial value. The AV. has a single example, with participial meaning: açitā́vaty átithāu one's guest having eaten (loc. abs.). In the Brāhmaṇas also it is hardly met with. In the later language, however, it comes to be quite common. And there it is chiefly used predicatively, and oftenest without copula expressed, or with the value of a personal verb-form in a past tense: primarily, and not seldom, signifying immediate past, or having a true "perfect" value; but also (like the old perfect and the old aorist in later use) coming to be freely used for indefinite time, or with the value of the imperfect (779). For example: māṁ na kaçcid dṛṣṭavān no one has seen (or sawmesa nakulaṁ vyāpāditavān he destroyed the ichneumon; or, with copula, mahat kṛcchram prāptavaty asi thou hast fallen upon great misery. Although originally and properly made only from transitive verbs (with an object, to which the participle in ta stands in the relation of an objective predicate), it is finally found also from intransitives: thus, cūtena saṁçritavatī (Ç.) has become united with the mango-treegatavatī (ib.) she has gone.

a. The same participle is also made in the secondary conjugations: e. g. darçitavant having shownprabodhitavant having awakened.

b. Possessives also in in made from passive participles are sometimes found used in an analogous manner, nearly as perfect active participles: e. g. iṣṭín having sacrificedvijitino manyamānāḥ (AB.) thinking themselves to have conquered.