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963. The suffix ya in its gerundive use

The suffix ya in its gerundive use has nothing to distinguish it from the same suffix as employed to make adjectives and nouns of other character (see below, 1213). And it exhibits also the same variety in the treatment of the root.

a. The original value of the suffix is ia, and as such it has to be read in the very great majority of its Vedic occurrences. Hence the conversion of e and o to ay and av before it (see below).

b. Thus: 1. Final ā becomes e before the suffix: déya, dhyeya, khyéya, méya (perhaps dā́-ia etc., with euphonic y interposed); but RV. has once -jñāya. — 2. The other vowels either remain unchanged, or have the guṇa or the vṛddhi strengthening; and e usually and o always are treated before the ya as they would be before a vowel: thus, -kṣayya, jáyya, bháyya, lāyya; návya, bhávya, hávya, bhāvyá; vā́rya: and, in the later language, nīya, jeya, dhūya (such cases are wanting earlier). In a few instances, a short vowel adds t before the suffix: thus, itya, mitya, çrútya, stútya, kṛtya (the only Vedic examples). — 3. Medial a remains unchanged or is lengthened: thus, dábhya, vándya, sádyamā́dya, vā́cya. — 4. Medial i-, u-, and -vowels are unchanged or have the guṇa-strengthening: thus, ī́ḍya, gúhya, dhṛṣyadvéṣya, yódhya, márjya.

c. The RV. has about forty examples of this gerundive, and the AV. adds half as many more. Except in bhāviá (once), the accent in RV. is always on the root; AV. has several cases of accent on the i of the suffix (hence written ādyà, āçyà, -vyādhyà, -dharṣyà). According to the grammarians, the accent is on the root or else the ending is circumflexed: always the former, if the ya follow a vowel.