Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XIII‎ > ‎

968. The later language has only a single infinitive

Infinitives.


The later language has only a single infinitive, which is the accusative case of a verbal noun formed by the suffix तु tu, added to the root usually directly, but often also with aid of the preceding auxiliary vowel इ i. The form of the infinitive ending, therefore, is तुम् tum or इतुम् itum. The root has the guṇa-strengthening, and is accented. Thus, for example, एतुम् étumfrom √इ i; कर्तुम् kártum from √कृ kṛ; चरितुम् cáritum from √चर् car; भवितुम् bhávitum from √भू bhū.

a. As regards the use or omission of i, the infinitive (as also the gerund in tvā: 991) follows in general the analogy of the passive participle (956). Examples are (with the gerund added) as follows: dagdhá, dágdhum, dagdhvā́ from √dahbhinná, bhéttum, bhittvā́ from √bhidmatá, mántum, matvā́ from √manūḍhá, vóḍhum, ūḍhvā́ from √vah;patitá, pátitum, patitvā́ from √patyācitá, yā́citum, yācitvā́ from √yācçayitá, çáyitum, çayitvā́ from √çī. But certain exceptions and special cases require notice. Thus:

b. Of roots having no quotable participle, infinitive stems in tu are made from ad, sagh; in itu from uñchūh considerkṣap, luṇṭh, lok, svar; and in both from yabh.

c. Of roots making participles of both forms, an infinitive stem in tu only is quotable for kṣip, kṣubh, tap, tyaj, mṛç, lubh, vas shineçak, stabh; only in itu for gāh, carv, jap, mad, yat, van, çaṅs, çvas; in both for as throwūh removegup, car, mṛj (mā̆rṣṭu, mārjitu), lap, vas dwellçap, çās.

d. Also in a number of other cases (besides those already noticed) an infinitive stem is made both with and without i. Thus, in addition to the more regular form, a stem in itu is occasionally met with from roots  attainiṣ seekbandh, bhaj, yaj (ījitum), rudh obstructruh, vṛṣ, sad (sīditum), sah, han, hṛ; and one in tu from roots ās, bhāṣ, vid know. Both forms occur also from certain am-roots, namely nam, yam, ram, and, with ā before tu as in the pple, kram and bhram (kṣam has only kṣaṁtu, against the analogy ofkṣāṁta); further, from certain roots in variable , namely tṛ (tartu, tarī̆tu), vṛ cover (vártu, varī̆tu), and stṛ (stártu, staritu, stárītu) (but from çṛ crush occur onlyçárītu, çaritu, and from vṛ choose only varītu; while gṛ swallow and pṛ fill make their infinitive from other root-forms, namely giritum, pūritum); further, from a few vowel-roots, namely nī, cyu, sū (sū́tu); and finally from kṛṣ, nṛt, çuc.

e. Against the analogy of the participle, infinitive-stems in itu after a final consonant are made from the roots av, kṣan, khan and jan (the pples coming from khā and ), guh, jabh, tam, dīv play and dīv lament (both devitu), majj, vṛt, vṛdh, sṛp; and after a final vowel, from roots in ū, namely pū, bhū, sū (also sūtu), and from çri and çvi; as to roots in variable , see just above, d.

f. As the infinitive is made from the (accented and) strengthened root, so it naturally has, as a rule, the stronger or fuller root-form where a weaker or contracted form is taken by the participle (and gerund in tvā́): e. g. váktu against uktá (and uktvā́), yáṣṭu against iṣṭá (and iṣṭvā́), banddhum against baddhá (and baddhvā́), and so on. Deserving special notice are gātu (√ sing) against gītá, and dhā́tu (√dhā suck) against dhītá; and so from  give and  leave are made only dā́tu and hātu; but dhā put measure, andsthā add to the regular dhātu, mātu, sthātu the late forms -dhitu, -mitu, -sthitu; and  or si has sātu, sétu, and -situ weave (pple utá) has both vā́tu and ótu; or hvā has havītu, hváyitu, and hvātu. The root vyadh makes its only quotable infinitive, veddhum, from its vidh-form; from sañj or saj occur both san̄ktu and saktu. The anomalous epic forms ījitum (√yaj) and sīditum (√sad), were mentioned above. The root grab makes gráhītum.

g. In the later language, the infinitive-stem forms possessive compounds with kāma and manas (especially the former): e. g. svaptukāma having the wish to sleepyaṣṭukāma desirous of sacrificingvaktumanas minded to speak.

h. In very rare instances, dative infinitives in tave or tavāi are made from the infinitive stem in the later language (as abundantly in the earlier: 970 b): thus, pratihartave (BhP.). Andjīvase (973 a) is once found in MBh. (i. 3. 67 = 732), in a quasi-Vedic hymn to the Açvins.