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970. Nouns thus used infinitively

The nouns thus used infinitively are the following:

a. The root-noun, without derivative suffix, is so used in its accusative in am, its dative in e or (from ā-roots) āi, its genitive and ablative in as, and its locative in i.

b. The verbal noun in tu is so used in its accusative in tum, its dative in tave or tavāí, and its ablative and genitive in tos.

Of other nouns only single cases, generally datives, are reckoned as used with infinitive value; thus:

c. From the verbal noun in as, the dative in ase; and also, in an extremely small number of instances, a dative in se (or ṣe), from a noun formed with s simply.

d. From nouns in man and van, datives in mane and vane.

e. From nouns in ti, datives in taye, or (from one or two verbs) in tyāi.

f. From nouns in i, datives in áye.

g. From nouns in dhi and ṣi, datives in dhyāi and ṣyāi.

h. A few infinitives in ṣaṇi are perhaps locatives from nouns in an added to a root increased by s.

i. From a single root, dhṛ, are made infinitively used forms in tári, of which the grammatical character is questionable.

j. Among all these, the forms which have best right to special treatment as infinitives, on account of being of peculiar formation, or from suffixes not found in other uses, or for both reasons, are those in ṣe, ṣaṇi, tari, dhyāi, and tavāi.

k. Except the various cases of the derivative in tu, and of the root-noun, these infinitives are almost wholly unknown outside the Rig-Veda.

l. Other suffixes and forms than those noticed above might be added; for it is impossible to draw any fixed line between the uses classed as infinitive and the ordinary case-uses: thus,prajā́patim praçnám āitām (TS.) they went to ask Prajāpativíçvaṁ jīvám prasuvántī carā́yāi (RV.) quickening every living being to motionapáḥ sármāya codáyan(RV.) impelling the waters to flowçaknuyā́d gráhaṇāya (instead of the usual gráhītum: ÇB.) may be able to apprehendā tamanāt (instead of the usual tamitoḥ: S.) until exhaustion. And the so-called infinitives are found coördinated in the same sentence with common nouns, and even with compound nouns: e. g. cáritave... ābhogáya iṣṭáye rāyé(RV.) to go abroad, to enjoy, to seek wealthārtatrāṇāya na prahartum anāgasi (Ç.) for the rescue of the distressed, not for hurling at the innocent.