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982. Of the infinitive datives

Of the infinitive datives, the fundamental and usual sense is that expressed by for, in order to, for the purpose of.

Examples are: víçaṁ jīváṁ caráse bodháyantī (RV.) awakening every living creature to motiontā́n úpa yāta píbadhyāi (RV.) come to drink themnāí ’tā́ṁ te devā́ adadur áttave (AV.) the gods did not give her to thee for eatingpraí ”d yudháye dásyum índraḥ (RV.) Indra went forward to fight the demoncákṣur no dhehi vikhyāí (RV.) give us sight for looking abroad.

Some peculiar constructions, however, grow out of this use of the infinitive dative. Thus:

a. The noun which is logically the subject or the object of the action expressed by the infinitive is frequently put beside it in the dative (by a construction which is in part a perfectly simple one, but which is stretched beyond its natural boundaries by a kind of attraction): thus, cakāra sū́ryāya pánthām ánvetavā́ u (RV.) he made a track for the sun to follow (made for the sun a track for his following); çíçīte çṛ́n̄ge rákṣobhyo viníkṣe (RV.) he whets his horns to pierce the demonsrudrā́ya dhánur a tanomi brahmadvíṣe çárave hántavā́ u (RV.) I stretch the bow for Rudra, that with his arrow he may slay the brahma-haterasmábhyaṁ dṛçáye sū́ryāya púnar dātām ásum (RV.) may they grant life again, that we may see the sun.

b. An infinitive with √kṛ make is used nearly in the sense of a causative verb: thus, prā́ ’ndháṁ çroṇáṁ cákṣasa étave kṛthaḥ (RV.) ye make the blind and lame to see and go;agníṁ samídhe cakártha (RV.) thou hast made the fire to be kindled. Of similar character is an occasional construction with another verb: as, yád īm uçmási kártave kárat tát (RV.) what we wish to be done, may he do thatkavī́ṅr icchāmi saṁdṛ́çe (RV.) I desire to see the sages.

c. A dative infinitive is not seldom used as a predicate, sometimes with, but more usually without, a copula expressed: thus, agnír iva ná pratidhṛ́ṣe bhavati (TS.) like fire, he it not to be resistedmahimā́ te anyéna ná saṁnáçe (VS.) thy greatness is not to be attained by anothernákim índro níkartave ná çakráḥ páriçaktave (RV.) Indra is not to be put down, the mighty one is not to be overpowered.

d. Sometimes an infinitive so used without a copula has quite nearly the value of an imperative: thus, tyā́ me yaçásā... āuçijó huvádhyāi [asti] (RV.) these glorious ones shall the son of Uçij invoke for mesūktébhir vaḥ... índrā nv àgnī́ ávase huvádhyāi [staḥ] (RV.) with your hymns shall ye call now on Indra and Agni for aidvandádhyā agníṁ námobhiḥ [asmi] (RV.) let me greet Agni with homageasmā́kāsaç ca sūráyo víçvā ā́çās tarīṣáṇi (RV.) and let our sacrifices cross all regionstán nāí ’váṁ kártavāí (MS.) that must not be done sobrahmadvíṣaḥ çárave hántavā́ u (RV.) let the arrow slay the brahma-haters. The infinitives in dhyāi and ṣaṇi (which latter is in all its uses accordant with datives) are those in which the imperative value is most distinctly to be recognized.

e. In the Brāhmaṇas and Sūtras (especially in ÇB.) the dative in tavāi is not seldom used with a verb signifying speak (brū, vac, ah), to express the ordering of anything to be done: thus, tásmād óṣadhīnām evá mū́lāny úcchettavāí brūyāt (ÇB.) therefore let him direct the roots of the plants to be cut up (speak in order to their cutting up: cf. yé vaçā́yā ádānāya vádanti who dissuade from giving the cow: AV.).