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984. The genitive infinitive

The genitive infinitive (having the same form as the ablative) is in common use in the Brāhmaṇa language as dependent on īçvará lord, master, employed adjectively in the sense ofcapable or likely or exposed to.

a. Examples are: tā́ [devátāḥīçvarā́ enam pradáhaḥ (TS.) they are likely to burn him upátha ha vā́ īçvarò ‘gníṁ citvā́ kíṁcid dāuritám ā́pattor ví vā hválitoḥ (ÇB.) so in truth he is liable, after piling the fire, to meet with some mishap or other, or to staggeriçvaraṁ vāi rathantaram udgātuç cakṣuḥ pramathitoḥ (PB.)the rathantara is liable to knock out the eye of the chanter.

b. The dative is used in ÇB. instead of the genitive in a single phrase (īçvarāú jánayitavāí); and, in the later language, sometimes the accusative in turn. In a case or two the masc. sing. nom. īçvaraḥ is used, without regard to the gender or number of the word which it qualifies: thus, tásye ”çvaráḥ prajā́ pā́pīyasī bhávitoḥ (ÇB.) his progeny is liable to deteriorate. And in a very few instances the word īçvara is omitted, and the genitive has the same value without it: thus, dve madhyaṁdinam abhi pratyetoḥ (AB.) two may be added to the noon libationtáto dīkṣitáḥ pāmanó bhávitoḥ (ÇB.) then the consecrated is liable to get the itch.

c. This construction with īçvara, which is the only one for the genitive infinitive in the Brāhmaṇa, is unknown in the Veda, where the genitive is found in a very small number of examples with madhyā́, and with the root īç: thus, madhyā́ kártoḥ (RV.) in the midst of actionī́çe rāyó dā́toḥ (RV.) he is master of the giving of wealthī́çe yótoḥ (RV.) is able to keep away.