Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XIII‎ > ‎

990. The gerund is made in the later language

 The gerund is made in the later language by one of the two suffixes त्वा tvā and य ya, the former being used with a simple root, the latter with one that is compounded with a prepositional prefix — or, rarely, with an element of another kind, as adverb or noun.

a. To this distribution of uses between the two suffixes there are occasional exceptions. Thus, gerunds in ya from simple roots are not very rare in the epic language (e. g. gṛhya, uṣya[√vas dwell], arcya, īkṣya, cintya, tyajya, lakṣya; also from causatives and denominatives, as vācya, yojya, plāvya), and are not unknown elsewhere (e. g. arcya andīkṣya M., prothya AGS., sthāpya ÇvU.). And gerunds in tvā from compounded roots are met with in considerable numbers from AV. (only pratyarpayitvā́) down: e. g.samīrayitvā́ MS., virocayitvā́ TA., utkṣiptvā U., pratyuktvā E., pratyasitvā S., prahasitvā MBh., saṁdarçayitvā MBh., vimuktvā R., nivedayitvā R.,proktvā Pañc., anupītva VBS.: the great majority of them are made from the causative stem.

b. The prefixion of the negative particle, a or an, does not cause the gerund to take the form in ya: thus, akṛtvā, amīrayitvā (but R. has acintya). Of compounds with other than verbal prefixes, RV. has punardā́ya, karṇagṛ́hya, pādagṛ́hya, hastagṛ́hya, araṁkṛ́tya, akkhalīkṛ́tya, mithaspṛ́dhya; AV. has further namaskṛ́tya.