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992. The suffix added directly to the root

The suffix य ya is added directly to the root, which is accented, but has its weak form. A root ending in a short vowel takes त्य tya instead of य ya: thus, जित्य -jítya, स्तुत्य -stútya, कृत्य -kṛ́tya.

a. Roots in variable  (242) change that vowel to īr or ūr: thus, kīrya, gī́rya, tīrya (and tū́rya), dī́rya, pūrya, çī́rya, stī́rya (also stṛtya); — roots in ā have for the most part -āya; but dhā suck makes dhīya, and double forms are found from  sing (gāya, gī́ya),  drink (pā́ya, pīya),  give (dā́ya, dádya),  divide (dā́ya, ditya),  measure, exchange (mā́ya, mítya),  bind (sā́ya, sya);  cling has lā́ya or līya, as if an ā-verb; and khan and dham make khāya and dhmā́ya, from their ā-forms; — the roots in an and am making their participle in ata (954 d) make the gerund in atya, but also later in anya, amya (e. g. gátya, gamya; hátya, hanya; but tan makes as second form tāya, and from ram only ramya is quotable); — the roots in īv add ya to their īv-form: thus, ṣṭhīvya, sī́vya; — a few roots in i and u add ya to the lengthened vowel besides adding tya: thus, i go (īya, ítya; also ayya), ci gather (cīya, cítya), and plu, yu unitesu, stu (plū́ya, plutya, etc.); while kṣi destroy has onlykṣī́ya.

b. This gerund, though accented on the root-syllable, is generally a weakening formation: thus are made, without a strengthening nasal found in some other forms, ácya, ájya, idhya, údya, ubhya, grathya, tácya, daçya, bádhya, bhajya, lípya, lúpya, vlágya, çrabhya, sajya, skábhya, stábhya, syadya, svajya; with weakening of other kinds, gṛ́hya and gṛ́bhyapṛcchya, úcya, udya, úpya, úṣya (vas dwell), úhya, vidhya, vī́ya, vṛçcya, spṛ́dhya, hū́ya; — but from a number of roots are made both a stronger and a weaker form: thus, manthya and máthya, mārjya and mṛ́jya, rundhya and rúdhya, çaṅsya and çásya, çāsya and çiṣya, skándya andskádya, sráṅsya and srasya; — and only strong forms are found from roots arc, av, cāy, çī (çayya), as well as from certain roots with a constant nasal: e. g. uñch, kamp, nand, lamb, çan̄k; isolated cases are oṣya (√uṣ burn), prothya (also prúthya).

c. Other special cases are úhya and ūhya (√ūh remove), gurya and gū́rya, gúhya and gūhya, rúhya and rūhya, bhramya and bhrāmya, áyya (beside ítya, īya),ghrāya and jighrya; and ūrṇutya (beside vṛ́tya).