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993. Same two gerund formations

The older language has the same two gerund formations, haying the same distinction, and used in the same way.

a. In RV., however, the final of ya is in the great majority of instances (fully two thirds) long (as if the instrumental ending of a derivative noun in i or ti). In AV., long ā appears only once in a RV. passage.

b. Instead of tvā alone, the Veda has three forms of the suffix, namely tvā́, tvā́ya, and tvī́. Of these three, tvī́ is decidedly the commonest in RV. (thirty-five occurrences, against twenty-one of tvā); but it is unknown in AV., and very rare elsewhere in the older language; tvā́ya is found nine times in RV. (only once outside the tenth Book), twice in AV., and but half-a-dozen times elsewhere (in ÇB., once from a causative stem: spāçayitvā́ya). The historical relation of the three forms is obscure.

c. Two other gerund suffixes, tvānam and tvīnam. are mentioned by the grammarians as of Vedic use, but they have nowhere been found to occur.