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995. Adverbial Gerund in am

The accusative of a derivative nomen actionis in a, used adverbially, assumes sometimes a value and construction so accordant with that of the usual gerund that it cannot well be called by a different name.

a. No example of a peculiar gerundial construction with such a form occurs either in RV. or AV., although a dozen adverbial accusatives are to be classed as representing the formation: thus, abhyākrā́mam, pratán̄kam, praṇódam, nilā́yam, abhiskándam, etc. This gerund is found especially in the Brāhmaṇas and Sūtras, where it is not rare; in the epics it is extremely infrequent; later, also, it occurs very sparingly.

b. A final vowel has vṛddhi-strengthening before the suffix: thus, nāyam, çrāvam, kāram; final ā adds y: thus, khyāyam, yāyam; a medial vowel has guṇa (if capable of it: 240): thus,kṣepam, kroçam, vartam (but īkṣam, pūram); a medial a before a single consonant is lengthened: thus, krāmam, cāram, grāham, svādam (but grantham, lambham). The accent is on the radical syllable. No uncompounded examples are found in the older language, and extremely few in the later.

c. Examples are: kā́maṁ vā́ imā́ny án̄gāni vyatyā́saṁ çete (ÇB.) he lies changing the position of these limbs at pleasureúttarām-uttarāṁ çā́khāṁ samālámbhaṁ róhet (ÇB.) he would climb, taking hold of a higher and ever a higher limbaparī́ṣu mahānāgám ivā ’bhisaṁsā́raṁ didṛkṣitā́raḥ (ÇB.) hereafter, running together as it were about a great snake, they will wish to see himnā́māny āsām etā́ni nāmagrā́ham (ÇB.) with separate naming of these their namesyó viparyā́sam avagū́hati (ÇB.)whoever buries it upside downbāhūtkṣepaṁ kranditum pravṛttā (Ç.) she proceeded to cry, throwing up her arms (with arm-tossing); navacūtapallavāni darçaṁ-darçam madhukarāṇāṁ kvanitāni çrāvaṁ-çrāvam paribabhrāma (DKC.) he wandered about, constantly seeing the young shoots of the mango, and hearing the humming of the bees. Repeated forms, like those in the last example, are approved in the later language; they do not occur earlier (but instead of them the repeated ordinary gerund: 994 h).