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1002. The strong intensive reduplication

The strong intensive reduplication is made in three different ways:

I. a. The reduplicating syllable is, as elsewhere, composed of a single consonant with following vowel, and, so far as the consonant is concerned, follows the rules for present and perfect reduplication (590); but the vowel is a heavy one, radical a and  (or ar) being reduplicated with ā, an i-vowel by e, and an u-vowel by o.

Examples are: vāvadbābadhçāçvasrārandhdādṛdādhṛcekittetijnenīvevlīçoçucpopruthcoṣkujohū.

II. b. The reduplicating syllable has a final consonant, taken from the end of the root. With an exception or two, this consonant is either r (or its substitute l) or a nasal.

Examples are: carcar, calcal, sarsṛ, marmṛj, jarhṛscan̄kram, jan̄ghan, taṅstan, dandaç (√daṅç or daç), jañjabh (√jambh or jabh), tantas (√taṅs or tas),nannam (√nam), yaṁyam (√yam). The nasal is assimilated to the initial consonant.

c. Only roots having a or  as vowel make this form of reduplication, but with such roots it is more common than either of the other forms.

d. Irregular formations of this class are: with a final other than r or n in the reduplication, badbadh; with a final nasal in the reduplication which is not found in the root, jan̄gah (RV.),jañjap (ÇB.; and jan̄gūyat PB. is perhaps from √gu; the later language has further dandah); with an anomalous initial consonant in reduplication, jarbhur from √bhur (compare the Vedic perfect jabhāra from √bhṛ, 789 b), galgal from √gal; with various treatment of an  or ar-element, dardar and dardircarkar and carkir, tartar and tartur, carcar and carcur, jargur and jalgul.

e. The roots i and  are the only ones with vowel initial forming an intensive stem: i makes iyāy (? PU., once);  makes the irregular alar or alṛ. As to the stem ī́ya, see below, 1021 b.

III. f. The reduplication is dissyllabic, an i-vowel being added after a final consonant of the reduplicating syllable. This i-vowel is in the older language short before a double consonant, and long before a single.

Examples are: ganīgam (but gánigmatam), varīvṛt, vanīvāh, caniṣkad, saniṣvannavīnu, davidyut (and the participles dávidhvat but távītuat). A single exception as to the quantity of the i is davidhāva.

g. This method of reduplication is followed in the older language by about thirty roots. Thus, of roots having final or penultimate n (once m), and n in the reduplicating syllable, pan, phan, san, svan, hangamkrand, çcand, skand, syand; of roots having final or medial , and r in the, reduplicating syllable, kṛ maketṛ, bhṛ, vṛ, mṛj, mṛç, vṛj, vṛt, sṛp; also mluc (malimluc); — further, of roots assuming in the reduplication a n not found in the root, only vah (ÇB.: the grammarians allow also kas, pat, pad; and panīpad is quotable later; and AÇS. has canīkhudat, for which TB. reads kánīkhunat); finally, of roots having u or ū as radical vowel, with av before the i-vowel, tu, dhū, nu, dyut.

h. In this class, the general rules as to the form of the reduplicating consonant (590) are violated in the case of ghanīghan and bharībhṛ, and of ganīgam, karīkṛ (but the regularcarīkṛ also occurs), kanikrand, and kaniṣkand (but also caniṣkand occurs); also in kanīkhun.

i. The reversion to more original guttural form after the reduplication in cekit, and jan̄ghan and ghanīghan, is in accordance with what takes place elsewhere (2161).