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1028. The root in general remains unchanged

The root in general remains unchanged; but with the following exceptions:

a. A final i or u is lengthened before sa: thus, cikṣīṣa, cikīṣa, jigīṣaçuçrūṣa, juhūṣa, cukṣūṣa.

b. A final  becomes īr or ūr before sa: thus, cikīrṣa, titīrṣa (also irregularly tūtūrṣa RV.), didhīrṣa, sisīrṣa, tistīrṣa (also tustūrṣa), jihīrṣabubhūrṣa, mumūrṣa (the only examples quotable).

c. Before iṣa, a final i- or u- or -vowel necessarily, and a penultimate i or u or  optionally, have the guṇa-strengthening; no examples are quotable from the older texts; later occurçiçayiṣa, çiçariṣacikartiṣa, ninartiṣa, mimardiṣa, vivarṣiṣa, çuçobhiṣa; but rurudiṣa.

More special exceptions are:

d. A few roots in ā weaken this vowel to ī or even i: thus, jigīṣa from √ gopipīṣa (beside pipāsa) from √ drinkjihīṣa (AV.) from √ remove (jihīte: 664); didhiṣa(beside dhitsa) from √dhā.

e. A few roots in an or am lengthen the vowel: thus, jigāṅsa (beside jigamiṣa) from √gamjighāṅsa from √hanmīmāṅsa from √man; and titāṅsa from √tan.

f. Reversion to guttural form of an initial after the reduplication is seen in cikīṣa from √ci, cikitsa from √cit, jigīṣa from √ji, jighāṅsa from √han; and √hi is said to makejighīṣa (no occurrence).

g. The roots van and san make vivāsa and siṣāsa, from the root-forms  and .

h. The root jīv forms jujyūṣa (ÇB.: jijīviṣa, VS.); and the other roots in īv (765) are required to make the same change before sa, and to have guṇa before iṣa: thus, susyūṣa orsiseviṣa from √sīvSvap forms suṣupsaDhūrv forms dudhūrṣa.

i. Initial s is usually left unchanged to  after the reduplication when the desiderative sign has  (184e): thus, sisan̄kṣa (ÇB.: √sañj), and susyūṣa and sisaniṣa, according to the grammarians; but tuṣṭūṣa is met with.

j. Further may be mentioned as prescribed by the grammarians: ninan̄kṣa (or ninaçiṣa) from √nāç be lostmiman̄kṣa from √majj (occurs in miman̄kṣu); mimārjiṣa (or mimṛkṣa) from √mṛj.