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1043. The causative stem is inflected

Inflection: Present-System. The causative stem is inflected in the present-system precisely like other stems in अ a (733 a): it will be sufficient to give here in general the first persons of the different formations, taking as model the stem धारय dhāráya, from √धृ dhṛ. Thus:

1. Present Indicative.
active.
s.d.p.
1धारयामि
dhāráyāmi
धारयावस्
dhāráyāvas
धारयामस्
dhāráyāmas
etc.etc.etc.
middle.
s.d.p.
1धारये
dhāráye
धारयावहे
dhāráyāvahe
धारयामहे
dhāráyāmahe
etc.etc.etc.

a. The 1st pl. act. in masi greatly outnumbers (as ten to one) that in mas in both RV. and AV. No example occurs of 2d pl. act. in thana, nor of 3d sing. mid. in e for ate.

2. Present Subjunctive.

For the subjunctive may be instanced all the forms noted as occurring in the older language:

active.
1dhāráyāṇidhāráyāvadhāráyāma
2dhāráyāsidhāráyāthasdhāráyātha
dhāráyās
3dhāráyātidhāráyātasdhāráyān
dhāráyāt
middle.
1dhāráyāidhāráyāvahāi
2dhāráyāsedhāráyādhve
dhāráyādhvāi
3dhāráyātedhāráyāite
dhāráyātāi

b. Only one dual mid. form in āite occurs: mādáyāite (RV.). The only RV. mid. form in āi, except in 1st du., is mādayādhvāi. The primary endings in 2d and 3d sing. act. are more common than the secondary.

3. Present Optative.


active.
1घारयेयम्
dhāráyeyam
धारयेव
dhāráyeva
धारयेम
dhāráyema
etc.etc.etc.
middle.
1धारयेय
dhāráyeya
धारयेवहि
dhāráyevahi
धारयेमहि
dhāráyemahi
etc.etc.etc.

c. Optative forms are very rare in the oldest language (four in RV., two in AV.); they become more common in the Brāhmaṇas. A 3d sing. mid. in īta instead of eta (cf. 738 b) occurs once in B. (kāmayīta AB.), is not very rare in S. (a score or two of examples are quotable), and is also found in MBh. and later. Of a corresponding 3d pl. in īran only one or two instances can be pointed out (kāmayīran AÇS., kalpayīran AGS.).

4. Present Imperative.
active.
2धारय
dhāráya
धारयतम्
dhāráyatam
धारयत
dhāráyata
etc.etc.etc.
middle.
2धारयस्व
dhāráyasva
धारयेथाम्
dhāráyethām
धारयध्वम्
dhāráyadhvam
etc.etc.etc.

d. Imperative persons with the ending tāt occur: dhārayatāt (AV.) and cyāvayatāt (ÇB.) are 2d sing.; pātayatāt (ÇB.) is 3d sing.; gamayatāt and cyāvayatāt (K. etc.), andvārayatāt (TB.) are used as 2d pl. Vārayadhvāt (K. etc.) is 2d pl., and the only known example of such an ending (see above, 549 b).

5. Present Participle.
धारयन्त्
dhāráyant
धारयमाण
dhāráyamāṇa

e. The feminine of the active participle is regularly and usually made in antī (449 c). But a very few examples in atī are met with (one in the older language: namayatī Āpast.).

f. The middle participle in māna is made through the whole history of the language, from RV. (only yātáyamāna) down, and is the only one met with in the earlier language (for ī́rayānas[sic !], MS. ii. 7. 12, is evidently a false reading, perhaps for írayā nas). But decidedly more common in the epics and later is one formed with āna: e. g. kāmayānacintayāna,pālayānavedayāna. It is quotable from a larger number of roots than is the more regular participle in māna. As it occurs in no accentuated text, its accent cannot be given.
6. Imperfect.
active.
1.अधारयम्
ádhārayam
अधारयाव
ádhārayāva
अघारयाम
ádhārayāma
etc.etc.etc
middle.
1अधारये
ádhāraye
अधारयावहि
ádhārayāvahi
अधारयामहि
ádhārayāmahi
etc.etc.etc.