Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XIV‎ > ‎

1051. Verbal Nouns and Adjectives are made

Verbal Nouns and Adjectives. These are made in two different ways: either 1. from the full causative stem (in the same manner as the futures, just described); or 2. from the causatively strengthened root-form (with loss of the causative-sign).

a. To the latter class belong the passive participle, as dhārita; the gerundive and gerund in ya, as dhārya, -dhārya; and the gerund in am, as dhāram; also, in the older language, the root-infinitive, as -dhāram etc. (970 a). To the former class belong the infinitive and the gerund in tvā, as dhārayitumdhārayitvā, and the gerundive in tavya, as dhārayitavya(also, in the older language, the infinitives in tavāi and dhyāi, as jánayitavāíīrayádhyāi, etc.). The auxiliary i is taken in every formation which ever admits that vowel.

b. Examples of the passive participle are īritávāsitaçrāvitá. But from the quasi-root jñap (1042 j) is made jñapta, without union-vowel.

c. Examples of the infinitive and gerund in tvā are jóṣayitumdhā́rayitumkalpayitvā́arpayitvā́. But in the epics, and even later, infinitives are occasionally made with loss of the causative-sign: e. g. çeṣitumbhāvitumdhāritummocitum.

d. Examples of the gerunds in ya and am are -bhā́jya, -ghārya, -pādya, -vāsyanāyya, -sthāpya; -bhā́jam, -sthāpam. But stems showing in the root-syllable no difference from the root retain ay of the causative-sign in the gerund, to distinguish it from that belonging to the primary conjugation: e. g. -kramáyya, -gamáyya, -janáyya, -jvaláyya, -kalayya, -çamayya, -racayya, -āpayya.

e. Examples of the gerundive in tavya are tarpayitavyàgamayitavyahvāyayitavya; of that in yasthā́pyahā́ryayājya; of that in anīyasthāpanīyabhāvanīya.

f. Examples of other formations occurring in the older language are as follows: root-infinitive, -sthāpam, -vāsas; — infinitive in tu, other cases than accusative, -janayitave;jánayitavāípā́yayitavāí, -çcotayitavāíçámayitos; — infinitive in dhyāiiṣayádhyāiīrayádhyāitaṅsayádhyāināçayádhyāimandayádhyāimādayádhyāi,riṣayádhyāivartayádhyāivājayádhyāisyandayádhyāi (all RV.); — gerundive in āyyapanayā́yyaspṛhayā́yyatrayayā́yya (? √trā).

g. Other noun-derivatives from the causative stem are not infrequent, being decidedly more numerous and various than from any other of the secondary conjugation-stems. Examples (of other kinds than those instanced in 1044) are: árpaṇadāpanaprīṇanabhī́ṣaṇajñāpakaropakapatayālúspṛhayālujánayatijñapti.

h. All the classes of derivatives, it will be noticed, follow in regard to accent the analogy of similar formations from the simple root, and show no influence of the special accent of the causative-stem.