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1054. The grammarians teach that any noun-stem

The grammarians teach that any noun-stem in the language may be converted, without other addition than that of an अ a (as union-vowel enabling it to be inflected according to the second general conjugation) into a present-stem, and conjugated as such.

a. But such formations are rare in actual use. The RV. has a few isolated and doubtful examples, the clearest of which is bhiṣákti he heals, from bhiṣáj physician; it is made like a form of the root-class; abhiṣṇak seems to be its imperfect according to the nasal class; and pátyate he rules appears to be a denominative of páti master; other possible cases are iṣaṇasetc., kṛpáṇantataruṣema etc., vanuṣantabhurajantavánanvati. From the other older texts are quotable kavyánt (TS.), áçlonat (TB.), unmūlati (ṢB.), svadhāmahe(ÇÇS.). And a considerable number of instances, mostly isolated, are found in the later language: e. g. kalahant (MBh.), arghanti (Pañç.), abjati (Çatr.), gardabhati (SD.),utkaṇṭhate (SD.), jagannetrati (Pras.), keliçvetasahasrapattrati (Pras.).