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1059. From stems in a

From stems in a. a. The final a of a noun-stem oftenest remains unchanged: thus, amitrayáti plays the enemyis hostiledevayáti cultivates the gods, is pious.

b. But final a is also often lengthened: thus, aghāyáti plans mischiefpriyāyáte holds dearaçvāyáti seeks for horsesaçanāyáti desires food.

c. While in the Veda the various modes of denominative formation are well distributed, no one showing a marked preponderance, in the later language the vast majority of denominatives (fully seven eighths) are of the two kinds just noticed: namely, made from a-stems, and of the form aya or āya, the former predominating. And there is seen a decided tendency to give the denominatives in aya an active form and transitive meaning, and those in āya a middle form and intransitive or reflexive meaning. In not a few cases, parallel formations from the same stem illustrate this distinction: e. g. kaluṣayati makes turbidkaluṣāyate is or becomes turbidtaruṇayati rejuvenatestaruṇāyate is rejuvenatedçithilayati loosens,çithilāyate grows loose. No distinct traces of this distinction are recognizable in the Veda, although there also corresponding forms with short a and with long ā sometimes stand side by side.

d. Final a is sometimes changed to ī (very rarely i): thus, adhvarīyáti performs the sacrificetaviṣīyáti is mightyputrīyáti or putriyáti desires a sonmāṅsīyáti craves fleshsajjīyate is readycandrakāntiīati is moonstonelike. Not fifty stems of this form are quotable.

e. It is occasionally dropped (after n or r): thus, turaṇyáti is rapidadhvaryáti performs the sacrifice.

f. Other modes of treatment are sporadic: thus, the addition of s, as in stanasyati seeks the breast; the change of a to e, as in vareyáti plays the wooer.