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999. A decided predilection for the passive form

As already pointed out (282 a), the language, especially later, has a decided predilection for the passive form of the sentence. This is given in part by the use of finite passive forms, but oftener by that of the passive participle and of the gerundive: the participle being taken in part in a present sense, but more usually in a past (whether indefinite or proximate past), and sometimes with a copula expressed, but much oftener without it; and the gerundive representing either a pure future or one with the sense of necessity or duty added. A further example is:tatrāi ’ko yuvā brāhmaṇo dṛṣṭaḥ: taṁ dṛṣṭvā kāmena pīḍitā saṁjātā: sakhyā agre kathitam: sakhi puruṣo ‘yaṁ gṛhītvā mama mātuḥ samīpam ānetavyaḥ (Vet.) there she saw a young Brahman; at sight of him she felt the pangs of love; she said to her friend: 'friend, you must take and bring this man to my mother'. In some styles of later Sanskrit, the prevailing expression of past time is by means of the passive participle (thus, in Vet., an extreme case, more than nine tenths).

a. As in other languages, a 3d sing, passive is freely made from intransitive as well as transitive verbs: thus, ihā ”gamyatām come hithertvayā tatrāi ’va sthīyatām do you stand just theresarvāir jālam ādāyo ’ḍḍīyatām (H.) let all fly up with the net.