Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XV‎ > ‎

1070. Periphrastic Perfect

This (though almost unknown in the Veda, and coming only gradually into use in the Brāhmaṇas) is a tense widely made and frequently used in the classical Sanskrit.

a. It is made by prefixing the accusative of a derivative noun-stem in आ ā́ (accented) to the perfect tense of an auxiliary verb: namely, of √कृ kṛ make, more often of √अस् as be, and very rarely of √भू bhū be.

b. In the older language (see below, 1073d), kṛ is almost the only auxiliary used in making this tense, as occurring very few times, and bhū never. Later, also, bhū is quite rare (it is found nine times in MBh., six times in Rgh., and a few times elsewhere), but as gains very greatly in currency, having become the usual auxiliary, while kṛ is only exceptional.

c. Somewhat similar formations with yet other auxiliaries are not absolutely unknown in the later language: thus, varayām pracakramus (MBh.), pūrayām (etc.) vyadhus (Viracaritra),mṛgayām avāsit (ib.).