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1071. Periphrastic perfect occurs as follows

The periphrastic perfect occurs as follows:

a. It is the accepted perfect of the derivative conjugations: intensive, desiderative, causative, and denominative; the noun in आ ā́ being made from the present-stem which is the general basis of each conjugation: thus, from √बुध् budh, intensive बोबुधाम् bobudhā́m, desiderative बुभुत्साम् bubhutsā́m, causative बोधयाम् bodhayā́m; denominative मन्त्रयाम् mantrayā́m.

b. The formation from causative stems (including those denominatives which have assumed the aspect of causatives: 1056) is by far the most frequent. Only a few desideratives are quotable (1034 a), and of intensives only jāgarām āsa (1020 a; beside jajāgāra).

c. Most roots beginning with a vowel in a heavy syllable (long by nature or long by position) make this perfect only, and not the simple one: thus, आसाम् āsā́m from √आस् ās sit, ईक्षाम्īkṣā́m from √ईक्ष īkṣ see; उज्झाम् ujjhām from √उझ् ujh forsakeएधाम् edhām from √एध् edh thrive (the only examples quotable). d. Excepted are the roots āp and āñch, and those beginning with a before two consonants (and taking ān as reduplication: 788).

e. The roots (that is, stems reckoned by the grammarians as roots) of more than one syllable have their perfect of this formation: thus, cakāsā́m. But ūrṇu (713) is said to formūrṇonāva only; while jāgṛ (1020) makes a perfect of either formation, and daridrā (1024 a) is said to do the same.

f. A few other roots make the periphrastic in addition to the usual reduplicated perfect. Thus, in the older language only are found the stems cāyāmtāyāmnilsyāmvāsām (√vas dwell),vidām (√vid know), vyayām, and the reduplicated stems bibhayām and juhavām; the later language adds ayāmjayāmdayāmnayāmsmayāmhvayām, and the reduplicatedbibharām; and the grammarians teach like formations from uṣkās, and the reduplicating hrī. The stem is made in every case from the present-stem, with guṇa of a final vowel.