Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XV‎ > ‎

1075. Examples of the various formations

Examples of the various formations are as follows:

a. A (usually present) participle with the tenses of the verb i go. This is the combination, on the whole, of widest and most frequent occurrence. Thus: áyajvano vibhájann éti védaḥ (RV.) he ever gives away the wealth of the non-offereryathā sūcyā vāsaḥ saṁdadhad iyād evam evāi ’tābhir yajñasya chidraṁ saṁdadhad eti (AB.) just as one would mend [habitually] a garment with a needle, so with these one mends any defect of the sacrificeagnir vā idaṁ vāiçvānaro dahann āit (PB.) Agni Vaiçvānara kept burning this creationté ‘surāḥ párājitā yánto dyā́vāpṛthivī́ úpāçrayan (TB.) those Asuras, getting beaten, took refuge with heaven and earthtè ‘sya gṛhā́ḥ paçáva upamūryámāṇā īyuḥ (ÇB.) the animals, his family, would be continually destroyed.

b. The same with the verb car go (continually or habitually), signifying still more distinctly than the preceding a continued or habitual action. Thus: agnā́v agníç carati práviṣṭaḥ(AV.) Agni is constantly present in the fireadaṇdyaṁ daṇḍena ghnantaç caranti (PB.) they make a practice of beating with a rod what is undeserving of punishment.

c. The same with the verbs ās sit and sthā stand, with a like meaning. Thus, juhvata āsate (K.) they continue sacrificingte ‘pakramya prativāvadato ‘tiṣṭhan (AB.) they, having gone off, kept vehemently refusing. In the later language, sthā is the verb oftenest used, with predicates of various kind, to make a verbal phrase of continuance.

d. A present or future or perfect participle with as and bhū be. The participle is oftenest a future one; as only is used in the optative, bhū usually in other forms. Thus: yaḥ pūrvam anījānaḥ syāt (AB.) whoever may not have made sacrifice beforesamāvad eva yajñe kurvāṇā āsan (GB.) they did the same thing at the sacrificeparikrī́ḍanta āsan(MS.) they were playing aboutyátra suptvā́ púnar nā̀ ’vadrāsyán bhávati (ÇB.) when, after sleeping, he is not going to fall asleep againhavyaṁ hi vakṣyan bhavati(AB.) for he is intending to carry the sacrificedāsyant syāt (K.) may be going to giveyéna vā́hanena syantsyánt syā́t (ÇB.) with what vehicle he may be about to drive. True expressions for perfect and pluperfect and future perfect time are capable of being made by such means, and now and then are made, but in no regular and continued fashion.