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1102. One or two other suffixes

One or two other suffixes of manner are:

a. ti, in íti thus, very commonly used, from the earliest period, especially as particle of quotation, following the words quoted.

b. Examples are: brahmajāyé ’yám íti céd ávocan (RV.) if they have said "this is a Brahman's wife"; táṁ devā́ abruvan vrā́tya kíṁ nú tiṣṭasī́ ’ti (AV.) the gods said to him: Vrātya, why do you stand?" Often, the iti is used more pregnantly: thus, yáḥ çraddádhāti sánti devā́ íti (AV.) whoever has faith that the gods exist; taṁ vyāghram munir mūṣiko ‘yam iti paçyati (H.) the sage looks upon that tiger as being really a mouse; yūyaṁ kim iti sīdatha (H.) why (lit. alleging what reasondo you sit?

c. But iti is sometimes used in a less specialized way, to mark an onomatopoeia, or to indicate a gesture: e. g. bahíṣ ṭe astu bā́l íti (AV.) let it come out of you with a splash;íty ágre kṛṣáty áthé ’ti (ÇB.) he ploughs first this way, then this way; or it points forward to something to be said: e. g. yan nv ity āhur anyāni chandāṅsi varṣīyāṅsi kasmād bṛhaty ucyata iti (PB.) when now they say thus: "the other metres are greater; why is the bṛhatī spoken?" It also makes a number of derivatives and compounds: e. g.ititha the so-many-eth; itivat in this fashion; ityartham for this purpose; itihāsa a story or legend (lit. thus forsooth it was). As to the use of a nominative with iti as predicate to an accusative, see 268 b.

d. With the suffix of íti is to be compared that of táti etc. (519). The word is abbreviated to ti two or three times in ÇB.

e. va in iva (toneless) like, as, and evá (in V. often evā́), earlier thus, later a particle emphasizing the preceding word; for thus is used later the related evám, which hardly occurs in RV., and in AV. only with √vid: as, evám vidvā́n knowing thus.

f. In later Vedic (AV. etc., and the later parts of RV.) iva more often counts for only a single syllable, ’va.